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Occupational therapists and physical therapists are skilled in the observation of fine and gross motor task performance and can assist in accurately identifying and assessing children with DCD.
Once other medical and neurological explanations for the child's clumsiness have been ruled out, an assessment by an occupational therapist (OT) and/or physical therapist (PT) would be helpful in order to confirm the presence of a motor coordination disorder, provide information on the severity of the difficulties and determine the impact of the motor coordination disorder on the child's daily functioning.
If a child is suspected of having DCD, the OT and/or PT may use several tools to determine the child's capabilities in a variety of functional areas, to plan appropriate intervention and to measure the effectiveness of the intervention, particularly regarding activity and participation levels. The tools used will depend on the age of the child and may include one or more of the following measures.
The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS) (preschool children) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) (children 4 years of age and above) can provide useful information on the nature of the movement difficulties.
The PDMS can help to identify whether a young child is showing the characteristic features of DCD, and to determine the need for ongoing monitoring, intervention and/or follow-up assessment. This measure can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention.
The M-ABC assesses a child's fine motor ability, their performance with ball skills, and their balance, and is intended specifically to identify children with DCD. The test scores provide information about how the child's motor performance compares to his or her peers and can provide an indication of the severity of the motor difficulties. This tool can also provide additional detail about the child's muscle tone, postural control, speed, bilateral coordination, hand use, grasp patterns, effort, attention and behaviour during task performance. The M-ABC contains a behavioural checklist that can provide insight into the effect of motivation on assessment results and overall compliance with testing. In addition, a teacher checklist that addresses environmental context and guidelines for program planning are included.
Another important aspect of assessment is to describe how the child's motor difficulties are impacting on his/her daily performance. Through interview, questionnaires and observation, it is possible to describe the impact of motor skill delays and in-coordination on:
This information will be critical to set goals, plan intervention and develop strategies for ongoing management of the child with DCD.
With younger children, the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) may be a more appropriate goal setting tool. In this pictorial measure, children reflect on, and indicate their competence performing, 24 tasks that they need to do everyday. They then identify any other activities that are difficult for them and select and prioritize tasks as goals for therapy.
Goal attainment scaling (GAS) is increasing in use as a measure to determine the effectiveness of intervention. This measure tracks changes in activity and participation levels following intervention. A measure providing similar types of information is the School Function Assessment (SFA), which looks at a child's participation in school-related settings and examines the amount of assistance and/or the type of adaptations required for the child to perform important school tasks. As the SFA requires observation of functional performance over time, it is usually completed by a therapist through interview of the teacher and others familiar with the child.